What is primary dysmenorrhea caused by?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the cramping pain that comes before or during a period. This pain is caused by natural chemicals called prostaglandins that are made in the lining of the uterus. Prostaglandins cause the muscles and blood vessels of the uterus to contract.
What is primary dysmenorrhoea?
Primary dysmenorrhea. This occurs when you first start your period and continues throughout your life. It is usually life-long. It can cause severe and frequent menstrual cramping from severe and abnormal uterine contractions.
How is primary and secondary dysmenorrhea different?
Primary dysmenorrhea characteristically begins when adolescents attain ovulatory cycles, usually within 6–12 months of menarche. Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to painful menses due to pelvic pathology or a recognized medical condition.
What is the mechanism of dysmenorrhea?
Mechanism. The underlying mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea is the contractions of the muscles of the uterus which induce a local ischemia. During an individual’s menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for potential pregnancy.
What causes higher levels of prostaglandins?
High levels of prostaglandins are produced in response to injury or infection and cause inflammation, which is associated with the symptoms of redness, swelling, pain and fever. This is an important part of the body’s normal healing process.
Which of the following mostly would explain the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?
Current evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea is due to prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), a potent myometrial stimulant and vasoconstrictor, in the secretory endometrium.
What are some of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea?
Symptoms may include cramping or pain in the lower abdomen, low back pain, pain spreading down the legs, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, fainting, or headaches.
How is primary dysmenorrhea treated?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used as first-line treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. Oral contraceptives may be effective for relieving symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea, but evidence is limited.
What type of dysmenorrhea that is caused by a pathological condition?
Dysmenorrhea may be primary or secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by specific imbalances in the woman’s endocrine system during the menstrual cycle. Secondary dysmenorrhea denotes menstrual cramps caused by some other distinct organic disorder. In most cases dysmenorrhea is primary.
What do prostaglandins do during period?
During your period, prostaglandins trigger muscles in your uterus to contract. These contractions help expel the uterus lining. Higher levels of prostaglandins can cause more severe menstrual cramps, and severe contractions may constrict the blood vessels around the uterus.
What is pathophysiology of endometriosis?
The most widely accepted hypothesis for the pathophysiology of endometriosis is that endometrial cells are transported from the uterine cavity during menstruation and subsequently become implanted at ectopic sites.
What are treatments for primary dysmenorrhea?
Management options for primary dysmenorrhea include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives are the first-line treatment for dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis.
How long does primary dysmenorrhea last?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common kind of dysmenorrhea. Cramping pain in the lower abdomen (belly) can start from 1–2 days before your period begins and can last 2–4 days.
Which gland produces prostaglandins?
The name prostaglandin derives from the prostate gland, chosen when prostaglandin was first isolated from seminal fluid in 1935 by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, and independently by the Irish-English physiologist Maurice Walter Goldblatt (1895–1967).
What enzyme produces prostaglandins?
Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids produced from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and specific terminal prostanoid synthase enzymes.
What causes high prostaglandins during period?
The more estrogen-based foods you consume, the more likely your uterine lining becomes abnormally thick. As a result, when it begins to break down during the menstrual cycle, this process creates more prostaglandins, resulting in higher levels of pain.
Why does the uterus release prostaglandins?
Is Primary dysmenorrhea curable?
Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent, underdiagnosed, but treatable condition.
Can primary dysmenorrhea be cured?
Treatment options for primary dysmenorrhoea include pain-relieving medication, anti-inflammatory medication, the oral combined contraceptive pill, heat (such as a hot water bottle), regular exercise and relaxation techniques.
How painful is primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the name for common menstrual cramps that come back over and over again (recurrent) and aren’t due to other diseases. Pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when bleeding actual starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back or thighs.
What is the primary prostaglandin type?
There are four principal bioactive prostaglandins generated in vivo: prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2), prostacyclin (PGI2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α).
What cells secrete prostaglandins?
In peripheral tissues, PGD2 is produced mainly by mast cells, but also by other leukocytes, such as DCs and Th2 cells (104–106).