What is the function of cytochalasin B?
Cytochalasin B (CB) is a cell-permeable mycotoxin. It inhibits cytoplasmic division by blocking the formation of contractile microfilaments, it inhibits cell movement and induces nuclear extrusion.
What effect does cytochalasin B have on dividing animal cells?
Cytochalasin B (CB) prevents cytokinesis in animal cells. In normal cells nuclear division and DNA synthesis are also blocked and the cells, held in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, remain either mononucleate or binucleate.
What type of transport is GLUT2?
GLUT2 is the major glucose transporter isoform expressed in hepatocytes, insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, and absorptive epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa and kidney.
What acts as a transporter for glucose?
GLUT3 is mainly present in the brain. It has high affinity for glucose, a property which is consistent with its function to transfer glucose into cells having a higher requirement of glucose. GLUT4 is an insulin-responsive glucose transporter that is found in the heart, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and brain.
Does cytochalasin inhibit cell movement?
The cytochalasins bind to the plus end of microfilaments; block further polymerization; and inhibit cell motility, phagocytosis, microfilament-based trafficking of organelles and vesicles, and the production of lamellipodia and microspikes.
What does cytochalasin B interfere with?
Cytochalasin B inhibits glucose transport and platelet aggregation. It blocks adenosine-induced apoptotic body formation without affecting activation of endogenous ADP-ribosylation in leukemia HL-60 cells. It is also used in cloning through nuclear transfer.
Why do some species employ both mitosis and meiosis whereas other species?
Why do some species employ both mitosis and meiosis, whereas other species use only mitosis? They need both if they are producing animal gametes. *The form of cell division that produces animal gametes is meiosis, not mitosis. The production of gametes in plants is a function of both mitosis and meiosis.
Is cytokinesis cell division?
Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.
What is the role of GLUT2 glucose transporter?
GLUT2 is the major glucose transporter inβ -cells of pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. In both cell types, GLUT2 mediates the facilitated diffusion of glucose across the cell membranes, and then intracellular glucose metabolism is initiated by the glucose-phosphorylating enzyme, hexokinase IV or glucokinase.
How is glucose transported across the membrane?
Glucose is transported across the cell membranes and tissue barriers by a sodium-independent glucose transporter (facilitated transport, GLUT proteins, and SLC2 genes), sodium-dependent glucose symporters (secondary active transport, SGLT proteins, and SLC5 genes), and glucose uniporter—SWEET protein ( SLC50 genes).
How is glucose transported from the blood to the cell?
Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by specific saturable transport system, which includes two types of glucose transporters: 1) sodium dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) which transport glucose against its concentration gradient and 2) sodium independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), which transport …