How much valproic acid does it take to overdose?

How much valproic acid does it take to overdose?

In large enough amounts, valproate can cause severe toxicity, but in the majority of cases it causes only minor effects. It has been suggested that overdoses greater than 200 mg kg−1 are potentially toxic [27, 29].

What happens if you overdose on valproic acid?

In patients with a severe overdose of valproate, patients can present with hypotension, tachycardia, respiratory depression, metabolic acidosis, cerebral edema, and valproate-related hyperammonemic encephalopathy which may progress to coma and death, if not treated aggressively.

Can you overdose on carnitine?

Are there health risks from too much carnitine? At doses of approximately 3 g/day, carnitine supplements can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and a “fishy” body odor [1,2]. Rarer side effects include muscle weakness in uremic patients and seizures in those with seizure disorders.

What level of valproic acid is toxic?

The therapeutic range for valproic acid is 50-100 mcg/mL. The toxic level is >100 mcg/mL.

How much divalproex is fatal?

400 — 1000 mg/kg: severe toxicity, i.e. Coma. >1g/kg: potentially life threatening, i.e. profound coma, multi-organ toxicity including hypotension, metabolic (lactic) acidosis, cerebral oedema, biochemical abnormalities, bone marrow suppression.

What are the side effects of L-carnitine?

When taken by mouth: L-carnitine is likely safe when taken for up to 12 months. It can cause side effects such as stomach upset, heartburn, diarrhea, and seizures. It can also cause the urine, breath, and sweat to have a “fishy” odor.

Does carnitine lower heart rate?

L-Carnitine Adequate energy production is essential for normal heart function. Several studies using L-carnitine showed an improvement in heart function and a reduction in symptoms of angina. People with congestive heart failure have insufficient oxygenation of the heart, which can damage the heart muscle.

How is high valproic acid treated?


  1. Hemodialysis might be the most effective therapy overall for valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia (since it removes ammonia, valproic acid, and perhaps some of the valproate metabolites).
  2. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is an indication for dialysis (more on this above).

What is the half life of valproic acid?

Valproic acid, commonly used in neuropsychiatry, has an elimination half-life of 4-16 hours in different populations (children vs adults, enzyme-induced vs uninduced).

What are adverse effects of valproic acid?

Diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, hair loss, blurred/double vision, change in menstrual periods, ringing in the ears, shakiness (tremor), unsteadiness, weight changes may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

How many mg of Depakote is lethal?

Toxic dose. Acute ingestions exceeding 200 mg/kg are associated with a high risk for significant CNS depression. The lowest published fatal dose is 15 g (750 mg/kg) in a 20-month-old child, but adult patients have survived after ingestions of 75 g.