What Agar does gonorrhea grow on?
N. gonorrhoeae is usually isolated on Thayer–Martin agar (or VPN) agar in an atmosphere enriched with 3-7% carbon dioxide. Thayer–Martin agar is a chocolate agar plate (heated blood agar) containing nutrients and antimicrobials (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, and trimethoprim).
Does gonorrhea produce beta lactamase?
gonorrhoeae is naturally susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, and penicillin-resistant isolates can be explained by two major mechanisms: one is based on the modification of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which are the target of β-lactam antibiotics, and the other involves the production of TEM-1 β-lactamase.
What is the virulence factor of gonorrhea?
gonorrhoeae possesses a wide range of virulence determinants, which include the elaboration of pili, Opa protein expression, lipooligosaccharide expression (LOS), Por protein expression and IgA1 protease production that facilitates adaptation within the host.
How do Neisseria gonorrhoeae use their pili to aid in the infection process?
Upon N. gonorrhoeae infection, complement is activated. Gonococcal pilus binds to the I-domain of CR3 allowing the bacterium to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between its own cell surface and that of the host cell.
How can N. gonorrhoeae be differentiated from N. meningitidis?
gonorrhoea is kidney shaped with apposing ends concave. N. meningitidis is semicircular diplococcus with flat apposing ends.
Which media is used to culture Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the causatives of sexually transmitted diseases, and it is a fastidious organism. This organism is typically cultured using an agar medium such as chocolate agar plate (GCII agar base with 1% IsoVitaleX [BBL] and purified hemoglobin).
Is Neisseria gonorrhoeae beta-lactamase positive?
gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to thiamphenicol (MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml) were beta-lactamase positive. It appears that strains of N. gonorrhoeae from Jakarta which were resistant to thiamphenicol have a greater correlation with PPNG or PPNG-TRNG than with chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin or tetracycline.
What is the pathogenesis of gonorrhea?
gonorrhoeae progresses through the stages of disease pathogenesis (transmission, adherence, colonization and invasion, and immune evasion), the bacterium expresses many virulence factors to promote survival and replication while remaining minimally invasive and minimally discoverable by immune cells.
How N. gonorrhoeae evades the host defense responses?
gonorrhoeae can evade host immune defenses by multifactorial strategies including continuous changes in its surface antigenic structure, resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, and possibly the production of IgA1 protease.
What is RMP protein?
rmp Protein A Sepharose Fast Flow is a low leakage, non-mammalian based affinity resin designed for high purity separation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies at the laboratory and process scales.
Does Neisseria gonorrhoeae have Pili?
ABSTRACT. Neisseria gonorrhoeae relies on type IV pili (T4p) to promote colonization of their human host and to cause the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. This organelle cycles through a process of extension and retraction back into the bacterial cell.
What cell structure does Neisseria gonorrhoeae use to attach and enter host epithelial cells?
Figure 1: Overview of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. During initial infection, Neisseria gonorrhoeae adheres to host epithelial cells through type IV pili (step 1), which retract and enable epithelial interactions with other prominent surface structures160,161. After initial adherence, N.