How calcium channel blockers cause gingival enlargement?

How calcium channel blockers cause gingival enlargement?

The calcium antagonist induces blockage of the aldosterone synthesis in zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex since this pathway is calcium-dependent, cyclic nucleotide-independent. This may produce a feedback stimulation of an increase in pituitary secretion of ACTH which affects zona glomerulosa hyperplasia.

Do calcium channel blockers cause swollen gums?

Calcium channel blockers can cause gingival (gum) overgrowth, said Dr. Michael Quinn, a periodontist who practices at several Coast Dental offices in the Atlanta area. The gums feel swollen, lumpy, hard and thick.

Which calcium channel blocker can cause excessive growth of gingival tissues?

Gingival enlargement is one of the side effects associated with certain drugs. Amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, used as antihypertensive drug has been found associated with gingival hyperplasia.

Do all calcium channel blockers cause gingival hyperplasia?

Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival hyperplasia in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine-, a third generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival hyperplasia is very limited. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a dose of 5 mg.

How do calcium channel blockers affect the mouth?

Besides other general side effects, CCBs can also cause gingival hyperplasia (gum overgrowth) and mouth dryness. The former condition occurs when the gum tissues grow and extend beyond their normal size over the teeth. Besides pain and discomfort, hyperplasia creates an abnormal appearance which can be embarrassing.

Why does verapamil cause gingival hyperplasia?

Phenytoin, phenobarbital, valproate, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, nifedipine, verapamil, and amlodipine are known to cause gingival overgrowth3,5,6,8-11; these drugs affect fibroblast function, increasing the matrix of the gingival connective tissue.

Does amlodipine cause gingival hypertrophy?

Amlodipine is a second-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can cause gingival hypertrophy. The prevalence of amlodipine-induced gingival hypertrophy has been shown to be between 1.7% and 3.3%.

Which drugs cause gingival hyperplasia?

Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a side effect associated principally with 3 types of drugs: anticonvulsant (phenytoin), immunosuppressant (cyclosporine A), and various calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem).

Does diltiazem cause gingival hyperplasia?

A small study of 89 patients undertaken at the Westside Veterans Administration Medical Center, Chicago seems to indicate that nifedipine and diltiazem do indeed cause gingival hyperplasia.

Why does nifedipine cause gingival hyperplasia?

[2] Various factors were attributed for the overgrowth of gingiva in nifedipine-induced hyperplasia, which include high plaque index (poor oral hygiene), high dose of the drug, genetic factors, individual susceptibility, and interaction between drugs and metabolites with the fibroblasts of gingiva.

How common is gingival hyperplasia with amlodipine?

Do all calcium channel blockers cause gum disease?

Although CCBs do not directly affect the underlying alveolar bone, the gingival enlargement may increase accumulation of bacterial biofilm and prevent adequate oral hygiene measures, thus inducing inflammation, periodontitis, bone and tooth loss, and halitosis.