What role does metformin play in type 1 diabetes?

What role does metformin play in type 1 diabetes?

Metformin reduces hepatic glucose production, stimulates glucose uptake in muscle, as well as improves blood flow for nutrient use. Metformin increases insulin sensitivity, reduces insulin resistance, improves insulin action, and increases peripheral glucose uptake in type 1 diabetes [18, 20, 21, 26].

Can Type 1 DM take metformin?

Although not licensed for use in type 1 diabetes, metformin is included in some clinical guidelines as adjuvant therapy for people with type 1 diabetes who are overweight and wish to improve glycaemic control while minimising the dose of insulin.

What are the complications of metformin?

The most common side effects of metformin include:

  • heartburn.
  • stomach pain.
  • nausea or vomiting.
  • bloating.
  • gas.
  • diarrhea.
  • constipation.
  • weight loss.

What are the major complications of type 1 DM?


  • Heart and blood vessel disease.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy).
  • Kidney damage (nephropathy).
  • Eye damage.
  • Foot damage.
  • Skin and mouth conditions.
  • Pregnancy complications.

What is the role of metformin?

Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels that are caused by a type of diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes called type 2 diabetes. With this type of diabetes, insulin produced by the pancreas is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly.

How does metformin cause lactic acidosis?

The pathophysiology of lactic acidosis from metformin is likely due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis by blocking pyruvate carboxylase, the first step of gluconeogenesis, which converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate. Blocking this enzyme leads to accumulation of lactic acid.

Does metformin treat type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent and commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It increases both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in the liver by inhibiting basal hepatic glucose production, as well as in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, by increasing glucose uptake [4, 14, 15].

What is the action of metformin?

Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.

What are the contraindications of metformin?

Current contraindications to metformin use

  • Renal dysfunction.
  • Congestive cardiac failure needing drug treatment.
  • Hypersensitivity to metformin.
  • Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis.
  • Impaired hepatic function.

Which is the most common complication expected in patients with type 1 diabetes?

Cardiovascular disease. Diabetes can put you at higher risk of blood clots, as well as high blood pressure and cholesterol. These can lead to chest pain, heart attack, stroke, or heart failure.

Can metformin cause hypoglycemia?

Metformin can also increase the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), particularly for those who take insulin and drugs which increase insulin secretion (such as sulfonylureas), but also when combined with excessive alcohol intake.