What are the classes of beta-lactamases?
- TEM beta-lactamases (class A)
- SHV beta-lactamases (class A)
- CTX-M beta-lactamases (class A)
- OXA beta-lactamases (class D)
- IMP-type carbapenemases (metallo-β-lactamases) (class B)
- VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (Class B)
How do you classify ESBL?
ESBLs are serine β-lactamases, belonging to Ambler molecular and structural classification as class A. They are biochemically characterized by their ability to hydrolyse expanded spectrum β-lactam antibiotics, and inhibition by β-lactamase inhibitors, specifically clavulanate.
Are Carbapenemases beta-lactamases?
Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these beta-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many beta-lactams ineffective.
What are the four classes of beta-lactams?
β-Lactamases divide into four classes; the active-site serine β-lactamases (classes A, C and D) and the zinc-dependent or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs; class B).
What are the classifications of antibiotics?
Classes of antibiotics include the following:
- Glycopeptides and lipoglycopeptides.
What ESBL means?
ESBL stands for Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase. Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by some bacteria that may make them resistant to some antibiotics. ESBL production is associated with a bacteria usually found in the bowel.
What are ESBL genes?
ESBL genes are located on plasmids that can be easily transferred between and within bacterial species. Some ESBL genes are mutant derivatives of established plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (e.g., blaTEM/SHV), and others are mobilized from environmental bacteria (e.g., blaCTX-M).
What is New Delhi syndrome?
NDM-1 refers to a gene’s protein product that some bacteria make. A bacterial strain that carries NDM-1 will be resistant to even some of the strongest antibiotics. Few current antibiotics can combat bacteria that have the NDM-1 gene, making it potentially dangerous. NDM-1 stands for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1.