What is the structure and function of cilia and flagella?
Flagella are long, wavy structures that extend from the plasma membrane and are used to move an entire cell. • Cilia are short, hair-like structures that are used to move entire cells or substances along the outer surface of the cell.
How do cilia and flagella differ in their movement?
The motion of cilia is rotational, very fast moving. The motion of flagella is rotary movement in prokaryotes whereas it is bending movement in eukaryotes. Cilia beat in coordination or one after the other. Flagella beat independent of each other.
How cilia and flagella help in cell movement or locomotion?
Cilia and flagella are motile cellular appendages found in most microorganisms and animals, but not in higher plants. In multicellular organisms, cilia function to move a cell or group of cells or to help transport fluid or materials past them.
What is the structure of cilia and flagellum?
Flagella and cilia consist of 9 fused pairs of protein microtubules with side arms of the motor molecule dynein that originate from a centriole. These form a ring around an inner central pair of microtubules that arise from a plate near the cell surface. The arrangement of microtubules is known as a 2X9+2 arrangement.
How are cilia used for movement?
Cilia are used for locomotion in isolated cells, such as certain protozoans (e.g., Paramecium). Motile cilia use their rhythmic undulation to sweep away substances, as in clearing dirt, dust, micro-organisms and mucus, to prevent disease.
How does flagella help a cell move?
Flagella Work Through Rotational Motion of the Filament Although bacterial flagella and those of eukaryotic cells have a different structure, they both work through a rotational movement of the filament to propel the cell or move fluids past the cell.
What is the similarities and differences between cilia and flagella?
|Longer than cilia, can vary
|Rotational, like a motor, very fast moving
|Wave-like, undulating, sinusoidal, slow movement compared to cilia
|Many (hundreds) per cell
|Few (less than 10) per cell
|Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
What is the structure of flagellum?
Bacterial flagella are a coiled, thread-like structure, sharp bent, consisting of a rotary motor at its base and are composed of the protein flagellin. A shaft exists between a hook and a basal body passing through the protein rings in the cell membrane.
Does cilia help in movement?
The function of the cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucus in a specific direction. It is present in inner surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi and help in movement of the particles present there.
How does a flagellum move?
Bacterial flagella are helically shaped structures containing the protein flagellin. The base of the flagellum (the hook) near the cell surface is attached to the basal body enclosed in the cell envelope. The flagellum rotates in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, in a motion similar to that of a propeller.
How do flagella move?
Flagella propel the cell by spinning around their axis in a corkscrew motion. They move in response to a chemical concentration gradient, indicating a sensory feedback regulation system. This is the basis for bacterial chemotaxis.
What causes cilia and flagella to move?
Cilia and flagella move because of the interactions of a set of microtubules inside. Collectively, these are called an “axoneme”, This figure shows a microtubule (top panel) in surface view and in cross section (lower left hand panel).