## What is Expectation Maximization for missing data?

Expectation maximization is applicable whenever the data are missing completely at random or missing at random-but unsuitable when the data are not missing at random. To illustrate, consider the following extract of data. Conceivably, individuals who do not answer questions about depression tend to be very depressed.

## Does expectation maximization always converge?

So yes, EM algorithm always converges, even though it might converge to bad local extrema, which is a different issue.

What is expectation maximization in imputation?

It uses the E-M Algorithm, which stands for Expectation-Maximization. It is an iterative procedure in which it uses other variables to impute a value (Expectation), then checks whether that is the value most likely (Maximization). If not, it re-imputes a more likely value.

How do you use expectation maximization?

The expectation-maximization algorithm is an approach for performing maximum likelihood estimation in the presence of latent variables. It does this by first estimating the values for the latent variables, then optimizing the model, then repeating these two steps until convergence.

### Is expectation maximization supervised or unsupervised?

The Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is one approach to unsuper- vised, semi-supervised, or lightly supervised learning.

### Does K mean expectation maximization?

Process of K-Means is something like assigning each observation to a cluster and process of EM(Expectation Maximization) is finding likelihood of an observation belonging to a cluster(probability). This is where both of these processes differ.

Why do we use Expectation Maximization?

EM is used because it’s often infeasible or impossible to directly calculate the parameters of a model that maximizes the probability of a dataset given that model.

Does K mean Expectation Maximization?

#### What happens when dataset includes missing data?

However, if the dataset is relatively small, every data point counts. In these situations, a missing data point means loss of valuable information. In any case, generally missing data creates imbalanced observations, cause biased estimates, and in extreme cases, can even lead to invalid conclusions.

#### Why EM is better than K-means?

However, the K-means algorithm differs in the method used for calculating the Euclidean distance while calculating the distance between each of two data items; and EM uses statistical methods. The EM algorithm is often used to provide the functions more effectively.

Is K-means a special case of GMM?

gaussian mixture distribution – K Means as a special case of GMM (using EM Algorithm) – Cross Validated. Stack Overflow for Teams – Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge.

Is Expectation Maximization supervised or unsupervised?

## What is expectation maximization in data analysis?

Expectation maximization is an effective technique that is often used in data analysis to manage missing data (for further discussion, see Schafer, 1997& Schafer & Olsen, 1998). Indeed, expectation maximization overcomes some of the limitations of other techniques, such as mean substitution or regression substitution.

## How does SPSS perform expectation maximization?

To undertake expectation maximization, the software package, such as SPSS executes the following steps. First, the means, variances, and covariances are estimated from the individuals whose data is complete. In particular, the computer would generate the following information. Specifically:

When is expectation maximization unsuitable?

Expectation maximization is applicable whenever the data are missing completely at random or missing at random-but unsuitable when the data are not missing at random. To illustrate, consider the following extract of data. Conceivably, individuals who do not answer questions about depression tend to be very depressed.

What is expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm?

Repeat step 2 and step 3 until convergence. The essence of Expectation-Maximization algorithm is to use the available observed data of the dataset to estimate the missing data and then using that data to update the values of the parameters. Let us understand the EM algorithm in detail.