How does the Clausius-mossotti relation can be used?
How does the Clausius-mossotti relation can be used?
For example, the Clausius-Mossotti relation is accurate for N2 gas up to 1000 atm between 25°C and 125°C. Moreover, the Clausius-Mossotti relation may be applicable to substances if the applied electric field is at a sufficiently high frequencies such that any permanent dipole modes are inactive.
What are the limitations of Clausius-Mossotti equation?
Absence of short-range interaction. The above mentioned conditions are satisfied with neutral molecules having no constant dipoles (i.e. non-polar). Therefore the above equation is applicable to neutral liquids and specially to gases. Clausius-Mossotti Equation is not applicable to strong solutions and solids.
What is Clausius-Mossotti factor?
The Clausius-Mossotti factor as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage for different dielectric properties of a 10-m-diameter biological cell. ” and are the permittivity and the electrical conductivity of the cell interior. The units of C , G , and are mF=m , kS=m , and S/m, respectively.
What is Clausius-mossotti relation of dielectric constant?
A relation between the polarizability α of a molecule and the dielectric constant ε of a dielectric substance made up of molecules with this polarizability. The Clausius-Mossotti equation can be written in the form α = (3/4πN)/[(ε – 1)/(ε – 2)], where N is the number of molecules per unit volume.
What is the Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics?
The Clausius Statement: It is impossible to construct a device which operates on a cycle and produces no other effect than the transfer of heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.
What is the meaning of the term polarization and explain how do you find the field of a polarized object?
Polarization occurs when an electric field distorts the negative cloud of electrons around positive atomic nuclei in a direction opposite the field. This slight separation of charge makes one side of the atom somewhat positive and the opposite side somewhat negative.
What is meant by dielectric loss?
dielectric loss, loss of energy that goes into heating a dielectric material in a varying electric field. For example, a capacitor incorporated in an alternating-current circuit is alternately charged and discharged each half cycle.
What is Lorentz local field?
[′lȯr‚ens ¦lō·kəl ′fēld] (electricity) In a theory of electric polarization, the average electric field due to the polarization at a molecular site that is calculated under the assumption that the field due to polarization by molecules inside a small sphere centered at the site may be neglected.
What is Clausius theorem what is its important conclusion?
The Clausius statement of law states the following: It is nearly impossible for any system to operate in a way such that the sole result would be a transfer of energy by heat from a cooler to a hotter body.
What is the significance of the second law of thermodynamics?
The significance of this law is that it tells us that any proposed process that would violate this condition can be dismissed as impossible, without even inquiring further into the details of the process.
How does dielectric constant affect capacitance?
The larger the dielectric constant, the more charge can be stored. Completely filling the space between capacitor plates with a dielectric, increases the capacitance by a factor of the dielectric constant: C = KCo, where Co is the capacitance with no slab between the plates.
Why is dielectric loss important?
Dielectric losses depend on frequency and the dielectric material. Heating through dielectric loss is widely employed industrially for heating thermosetting glues, for drying lumber and other fibrous materials, for preheating plastics before molding, and for fast jelling and drying of foam rubber.
What is dielectric loss explain toss tangent and its significance?
Dielectric Loss refers to the Loss of energy that goes into heating a Dielectric material in a varying, electric field. It tends to depend mainly on the Dielectric material and the frequency. Dielectric Loss is measured using the Loss of tangent which is also commonly referred to as tan delta (tan δ).
What is a depolarizing field?
Depolarization is an electrochemical phenomenon that involves the removal or prevention of polarization in a substance or of polarization arising from the field due to the charges induced on the surface of a dielectric when an external field is applied.
What is the significance of Clausius inequality?
The significance of the Clausius inequality is that it shows that the definition of entropy, i.e. δS=δqrevT (note that entropy change is defined for a reversible process) is consistent with observed reality: the entropy of an isolated system does not decrease spontaneously.
What is the Clausius inequality give its relevance to thermodynamics?
The Clausius inequality for a closed system states that the process is irreversible if TdS > dQ, and the process is reversible if TdS = dQ. There is another way to look at this, if we divide the internal entropy from the external entropy.
What is Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics?
The Clausius Statement was expressed as “Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time”, and the Kelvin–Planck Statement as “It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no other effect than the production of …
What is the significance of the first law of thermodynamics?
It gives the relationship between heat and work. It is merely the law of conservation of energy generalised to include heat as a form of energy transfer. The energy of an isolated system remains constant.
Why does capacitance increase with dielectric?
The dielectric placed between the plates of the capacitor reduces the electric field strength between the plates of the capacitor, this results in a small voltage between the plates for the same charge. The capacitor stores more charge for a smaller value of voltage. Therefore the capacitance increases.
What is the Clausius-Mossotti equation?
Feynman states the Clausius–Mossotti equation as follows: is the refractive index. Feynman discusses “atomic polarizability” and explains it in these terms: When there is a sinusoidal electric field acting on a material, there is an induced dipole moment per unit volume which is proportional to the electric field – with a proportionality constant
What is the Clausius Mossotti relation?
Clausius–Mossotti relation. The Clausius–Mossotti relation expresses the dielectric constant (relative permittivity, ε r) of a material in terms of the atomic polarizibility, α, of the material’s constituent atoms and/or molecules, or a homogeneous mixture thereof. It is named after Ottaviano-Fabrizio Mossotti and Rudolf Clausius.
When is the Clausius-Mossotti relation applicable to substances?
Moreover, the Clausius-Mossotti relation may be applicable to substances if the applied electric field is at a sufficiently high frequencies such that any permanent dipole modes are inactive.
What is the Clausius theorem?
The Clausius theorem is a mathematical explanation of the second law of thermodynamics. Also referred to as the “inequality of Clausius”, the theorem was developed by Rudolf Clausius who intended to explain the relationship between the heat flow in a system and the entropy of the system and its surroundings. Wikipedia